Cutter Soil Mixing CSM, a Innovative Solution for Retaining Walls and Foundations

Manfred Schöpfa and Patrik Wenzlb

Bauer Maschinen GmbH, Schrobenhausen, Germany.


The beginnings of deep soil mixing were first documented in USA in 1950s. This system was used to construct soil mix piles but the acceptance was low. Later on, deep soil mixing became more and more popular in Japan and is now a standard method for producing underground structures. Basic idea of all soil mixing systems is improving the properties of the soil by mixing a binder in the ground. The common way is to use slurry made of water and cement containing binders. Ideally the slurry is filling up the pore volume of the present soil hence a concrete like structure appears. The latest development of the “Cutter Soil Mixing” CSM technique was introduced by Bauer Maschinen in 2003 by drawing on the experience gained in the use of diaphragm wall cutters in the construction of cut-off and diaphragm retaining walls. Today the CSM technique is successfully used all over the world. The most common applications for this method are the construction of retaining walls, cut-off walls, foundations and soil stabilization.

Keywords: Deep soil mixing; ground improvement; retaining wall.

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