Table of Contents

Wilson Tang Lecture

Geological Uncertainty: A Missing Element in Geotechnical Reliability Analysis
C. Hsein Juang

1 – 12

Suzanne Lacasse Lecture

Managing Risk in Geotechnical Engineering – from Data to Digitalization
Kok-Kwang Phoon

13 – 34

Keynote Lectures

Challenges in Determining Rock Mass Properties for Reliability – Based Design
John Harrison

35 – 44

Quantitative Risk Assessment of Individual Landslides
Jinsong Huang

45 – 54

Dam Safety Risk Analysis and Risk Management Practice at the Bureau of Reclamation: Lessons Learned from over Two Decades of Experience
Karen Knight

55 – 61

Honing Safety and Reliability Aspects in the Evolution of Eurocode 7
Trevor Orr

62 – 62

Bayesian Perspective on Ground Property Variability for Geotechnical Practice
Yu Wang

63 – 74

Evaluating Metropolitan Hazard Risks under Extreme Rainstorms
Limin Zhang

75 – 85

ISSMGE Bright Spark Lectures

Values of Monte Carlo Samples for Geotechnical Reliability – Based Design
Zi-Jun Cao

86 – 95

Influence of Spatially Variable Soil Permeability on Backward Erosion Piping
Bryant Robbins

96 – 101

Sparse Modeling in Geotechnical Engineering
Takayuki Shuku

102 – 111

Honour and Memory of Professor Tien H. Wu

Special Session in Honour and Memory of Professor Tien H. Wu
Kok-Kwang Phoon and C. Hsein Juang

112 – 113

Mini-Symposium on Performance-Based Design Codes and Practice Honouring Prof. Yusuke Honjo

Probabilistic Maintenance Design on Existing Ground – Anchored Slopes
Takashi Hara, Nobuyuki Soga, Naoki Tatta, Yu Fujiwara and Takashi Wachi

114 – 119

Normative Statistical Solutions for Common Geotechnical Problems
Yusuke Honjo and Yu Otake

120 – 125

Design Code for Agricultural Canals Based on Partial Safety Factors
S. Nishimura

126 – 131

Developments in LRFD Calibration for Internal Limit States for Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls in North America
Richard J. Bathurst, Tony M. Allen and Nezam Bozorgzadeh

132 – 137

Developments in the Selection of Characteristic Geotechnical Parameters in Eurocode 7
Trevor Orr

138 – 145

Overview of Japanese Road Bridge Design Code: Specifications for Highway Bridges – Focus on Foundation Design
Tetsuya Kouno and Takashi Hara

146 – 151

A Basic Study on Reliability Analysis Method for Circular Slip Failure Considered with the Determination Method of the Characteristic Value of Soil Property in Technical Standard for Port in Japan
Masahiro Takenobu, Masafumi Miyata, Hideki Kawamata, Hiroaki Matsubara, Yoichi Watabe and Yu Otake

152 – 157

Systematic Transformation Error in the Depth – Average Undrained Shear Strength
Mark van der Krogt and Timo Schweckendiek

158 – 163

Statistics for Soil & Rock Properties and Applications

Variation of Measured CPTu Data
Mika Knuuti and Tim Länsivaara

164 – 169

Combining Shear Wave Velocity and Electrical Resistivity for Improving Predictions of Soil Strength Properties
Wing Shun Kwan, James Tuazon, Mark Tufenkjian and Tommy Kam

170 – 175

Spatial Variability of Sandy Clay: Case Study
Rongjie He, Wuzhang Luo and Jinhui Li

176 – 181

Variability and Typical Value Distributions of Compressibility Properties of Fine – Grained Sediments in Finland
Monica Löfman and Leena Korkiala-Tanttu

182 – 187

Probabilistic Assignment of Design Undrained Shear Strength Using Quantile Regression
Marco Uzielli, Marco Zei and Mark J. Cassidy

188 – 193

Quantification of Statistical Uncertainties in Mean, Standard Deviation and Cross – Correlation of Geotechnical Properties Estimated from Sparse Measurements
Tengyuan Zhao and Yu Wang

194 – 199

Constructing a Multivariate Distribution of Clay Parameters Based on the Shanghai Database
Yelu Zhou, Dongming Zhang and Hongwei Huang

200 – 205

Application of Bayesian – Spatial Random Field Theory in Ground Surface Settlement Control of Shield Tunneling
Changhong Wang

206 – 211

Stochastic Settlement Simulation of Soil Deposit Using a New Efficient Spatial Correlation Model
Qingxia Yue

212 – 218

Evaluation of the Adherence to Existing Undrained Shear Strength Correlations for Three Clay Database: Shanghai, Northern Europe and Global
Ping He, Weidong Wang and Zhonghua Xu

219 – 224

Spatial Variability: Modelling Spatial Variability in Geotechnical Engineering & Numerical Techniques for Integrating the Spatial Variability of Soil and Groundwater Parameters into Designing and Environmental Management

Cyclic Behavior of a Laterally – Loaded Monopile in Spatially Variable London Clay
T.S. Charlton and M. Rouainia

225 – 230

Does Autocorrelation Function Type Matter in Modeling Geotechnical Spatial Variability?
Jianye Ching and Kok-Kwang Phoon

231 – 236

On the Importance of a Complete Characterization of Site Investigation Data Uncertainty: A Computational Example
A. P. van den Eijnden and M. A. Hicks

237 – 242

Improved Kriging – Based Approach for the Probabilistic Analysis of a Large Diameter Monopile in a Spatially Varying Soil
Abdul Kader El Haj and Abdul-Hamid Soubra

243 – 248

Ultimate Limit States of Foundation on Random Unsaturated Soils
Thi Minh Hue Le

249 – 254

On Homogenizing Spatially Variable Shear Strength
Mohammad Tabarroki and Jianye Ching

255 – 260

Effects of Desiccation Cracks on Slope Reliability
Rui Yang, Jinsong Huang, D.V. Griffiths and Daichao Sheng

261 – 266

Numerical Analysis of Excavation on the Adjacent Existed Tunnel Considering Soil Spatial Variability
Jinzhang Zhang, Dongming Zhang and Hongwei Huang

267 – 272

Worst – Case Spatial Correlation Length in Reliability Analysis of Excavated Clay Slopes
Desheng Zhu, D. V. Griffiths and Gordon A. Fenton

273 – 278

FE/LE and Spatial Variability Analysis of Basal Heave Stability for Excavations Supported by Diaphragm Walls
Anthony T.C. Goh, R.H. Zhang, W.G. Zhang and K.S. Wong

279 – 284

Modeling of Spatial Distribution of the Piping Hazard for River Dikes Based on Actual Data
Hiroto Koide and Yu Otake

285 – 290

Geostatistical Techniques to Obtain the 3 – D Hydraulic Conductivity Distribution Model in the Southern Po River Plain
Diego Di Curzio, Annamaria Castrignanò and Sergio Rusi

291 – 296

Probabilistic Bearing Capacity Evaluation for Two – Layered Soil
Marcin Chwała, Wojciech Puła and Marek Kawa

297 – 302

An Application of the Kriging Technique to Support the Geotechnical Designing of Foundations Based on CPTs in Po Plain Alluvial Deposits
Joanna Pieczynska-Kozlowska and Giovanna Vessia

303 – 308

Application of Some Kriging Techniques Aimed at the Integration of Environmental Parameters for the Improvement of Estimation Quality
Barbara Namysłowska-Wilczyńska

309 – 314

Bearing Capacity for Spatially Random Soil Considering Cone Penetration Test Locations
Marcin Chwała

315 – 320

Full Probabilistic Design Method of Slopes Considering Stratigraphic Uncertainty and Spatial Variability of Soil Parameters
Zhiping Deng, Jingtai Niu and Min Pan

321 – 327

Probabilistic Site Characterization

Proper Number of Boreholes for Probabilistic Site Characterization
Jing-Sen Cai

328 – 333

Modeling Multivariate, Uncertain, Sparse, and Incomplete Site Investigation Data with Spatial Variation (MUSIC – X)
Jianye Ching and Kok-Kwang Phoon

334 – 339

Observations and Considerations Regarding Estimating Horizontal Scales of Fluctuation around Linear Infrastructure
Tom de Gast, Philip J. Vardon and Michael A. Hicks

340 – 345

How Many Samples Are Required in Geotechnical Site Investigation?
Zheng Guan, Yu Wang and Tengyuan Zhao

346 – 351

Estimation of Horizontal and Vertical Scales of Fluctuation from CPT Data Using Neural Networks and Random Fields
J. D. Nuttall

352 – 357

Efficient 3 – D Random Field Simulation with Separable Correlation Functions
Te Xiao, Li-Min Zhang, Dian-Qing Li and Zi-Jun Cao

358 – 363

A Fast Bayesian Approach for CPT – Based Soil Stratification with BUS
Shuo Zheng, Zi-Jun Cao and Dian-Qing Li

364 – 369

Consequences of Slenderness and Boundary Conditions in Triaxial Testing on the Reliability of Design Parameters
Elena Peri, Søren Dam Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl Nielsen and Lars Bo Ibsen

370 – 375

Cyclic CPT Measurements of Disturbed Soil State
Aleksandra Katarzyna Koteras, Tomas Sabaliauskas and Lars Bo Ibsen

376 – 381

Towards Optimal Site Investigations for Generalized Structural Configurations
M. P. Crisp, M. B. Jaksa and Y. L. Kuo

382 – 387

Optimizing Geotechnical Spatial Information by Utilizing Site-Specific Geostatistical Modeling
Han-Saem Kim and Hyun-Ki Kim

388 – 392

Design: Advances in Geotechnical Reliability – Based Design & Robust Geotechnical Design in the Face of Uncertainty

Risk Based Design of Deep Urban Excavations
Saeed Askarian and Ali Fakher

393 – 398

Full Probabilistic Design of Soil Retaining Structures in Spatially Variable Soils
Guo – Hui Gao, Dian – Qing Li, Zi – Jun Cao and Yu Wang

399 – 404

Probabilistic Analysis of Post – Failure Runout Behavior of Landslides
Bing Li, Huiming Tang and Wenping Gong

405 – 410

Modified Semi – Analytical Method for 3D Slope Reliability
Divya Varkey, Michael A. Hicks and Philip J. Vardon

411 – 416

Reliability of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Structure Design with Probabilistic and Finite Element Methods
Lei Wang, Sandae Tait, Ji Shin, Sara Khoshnevisan and Wenping Gong

417 – 422

Reliability Sensitivity Analysis of Reinforced Tunnel System Using Advanced Monte Carlo Simulation
Zhiyong Yang, Xiaohui Qi and Dianqing Li

423 – 428

System Reliability – Based Optimization Design of a Semi – Gravity Retaining Wall
Peng Zeng, Wenwei Li, Rafael Jimenez, Tianbin Li and Tianlong Zhang

429 – 434

Insights from Soil Engineering Reliability – Based Design to Improve Partial Factor Design Approach
B. K. Low

435 – 440

Stochastic Seismic Analysis of Geosynthetic – Reinforced Soil Slopes Based on Probability Density Evolution Method
Ming Peng, Rui Sun and Jian – Feng Chen

441 – 446

Reliability Analysis of an Infinite Slope
A. T. Siacara, A.T. Beck and M.M. Futai

447 – 452

Interaction of Geotechnical and Structural Variabilities in Reliability Assessments of Retaining Walls
X. Chen, Y. F. Leung and T. M. Chan

453 – 458

Efficient Probabilistic Back Analysis of Slopes Accounting for Spatial Variation of Soil Properties
Shui – Hua Jiang and Jinsong Huang

459 – 464

Impact of Copula Selection on Reliability – Based Design of Shallow Foundations
Xiong – Feng Liu, Xiao – Song Tang and Dian – Qing Li

465 – 470

Robust Geotechnical Design Based on Sensitivity Analysis of FORM Using Spreadsheet
Xiaohui Tan, Mengmeng Niu, Fanchao Wang, Xiaole Dong and Suozu Fei

471 – 476

Uncertainty & Reliability Analysis in Rock Engineering

Reliability Analysis of Rock Slope Stability Using Rock Mass Properties Estimated from Bayesian Method and Sparse Site – Specific Measurements
Adeyemi Emman Aladejare, Oluwatosin Victor Akeju and Yu Wang

477 – 482

Probabilistic Prediction of Intact Rock Compressive Strength Using Point Load Tests
P. Asem, R. Jimenez and P. Gardoni

483 – 488

Rock Engineering Insights from Reliability Analysis to Improve Eurocode 7 Design Approach
B. K. Low

489 – 494

Tunnel Support Using the Convergence Confinement Method: RBD and Partial Factor Calibration
Ali El Matarawi and John P. Harrison

495 – 500

Improving Estimation of In Situ Stress Using a Bayesian Approach
Yu Feng and John P. Harrison

501 – 506

Spatial Variability of Shotcrete Thickness in Design of Rock Tunnel Support
William Bjureland, Fredrik Johansson and Johan Spross

507 – 512

Probabilistic Assessment of Earth Slopes Subjected to Seismic Load
Jian Ji and Yufeng Gao

513 – 518

Reliability Based Design Using the Hoek – Brown Strength Criterion for Fractured Rock Masses
A. Bedi, J. P. Harrison, J. Arambarri and M. Invernici

519 – 524

Predicting Time – Dependent Tunnel Convergences Using the Bayesian Approach
Xianda Feng and Rafael Jimenez

525 – 528

Placement Optimization Method for Rockfall Protection Structures along a Road
Hasuka Kanno, Shuji Moriguchi, Kenjiro Terada, Shunsuke Hayashi, Yusaku Isobe and Ikumasa Yoshida

529 – 534

Interference Effects Involving Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Two Strip Footings Resting on Spatially Random Rockmass
Bhardwaj Pandit, Zahle Sakir Khan and G.L. Sivakumar Babu

535 – 540

Assessment of Rockfall Hazard Considering Three Dimensional Topography
Yuto Tsuda, Ikumasa Yoshida, Hasuka Kanno and Shuji Moriguchi

536 – 541

Machine Learning for Big Data: Algorithms and Applications

Bayesian Learning of Gaussian Mixture Model of Geotechnical Data
Qin – Xuan Deng, Jian He, Zi-Jun Cao and Dian-Qing Li

547 – 552

Bayesian Learning of Site – Specific Spatial Variability Using Sparse Geotechnical Data
Yue Hu, Tengyuan Zhao and Yu Wang

553 – 558

Deep Neural Networks for Prediction of Undrained Shear Strength of Clays
Vahid Asghari, Andy Y.F. Leung and Mark S.C. Hsu

559 – 564

Predicting Land Subsidence by Combining In Situ Testing and Remote Sensing Data
Carmen Martinez Barbosa, Faraz S. Tehrani and Ana Teixeira

565 – 570

Data – Fusion Based Vulnerability Analysis of Shield Driven Tunnel Suffering from Extreme Soil Surcharging
Xin Xie, Hongwei Huang, Dongming Zhang, Zhongqiang Liu and Suzanne Lacasse

571 – 576

Study on Optimization of Mars Model for Prediction of Pile Drivability Based on Cross – Validation
C.Z. Wu, Anthony T.C. Goh and W.G. Zhang

577 – 582

Similarity Measure for Soil Properties between Different Sites
Zhiyong Yang and Jianye Ching

583 – 588

Bayesian Methods: Bayesian Method for Processing Geotechnical Data & Bayesian Updating: Formalizing the Observational Method

Decision – Based Approach to Account for Uncertainty in Estimating the Overtopping Hazard to Manage Risk for Dams
Kai Feng, Azadeh Mostofi, Mahdi Habibi, Robert B. Gilbert and Farrokh Nadim

589 – 594

Inter – Region Variability of SPT – Based Liquefaction Potential Evaluation Method
Yixun Ge, Jie Zhang and Xianbin Liao

595 – 600

Value of Information Analysis for Ultimate Limit State Design of Strip Footings on Sand
Jinzheng Hu, Jie Zhang and Lei Wang

601 – 606

A Bayesian Framework for Optimizing Proof Load Test Programs for Driven Piles
Ihab Malaeb, Shadi Najjar and George Saad

607 – 612

Learning about Uncertain Predictions of Rainfall – Induced Landslides from Observed Slope Performance
Ivan Depina, Emir Ahmet Oguz and Vikas Thakur

613 – 618

Bayesian Updating of Foundation Reliability with Spatially Variable Measurements: A Spatial Averaging Approach
Iason Papaioannou, Sebastian Geyer and Daniel Straub

619 – 624

Probabilistic Evaluation of Settlement Monitoring with the Observational Method during Construction of Embankments on Clay
Johan Spross, Anders Prästings and Stefan Larsson

625 – 630

Uncertainty Tracking and Geotechnical Reliability Updating Using Bayesian Networks
Varenya Kumar D. Mohan, Philip J. Vardon, Michael A. Hicks and Pieter H.A.J.M. van Gelder

631 – 636

Inverse Analysis in Geotechnical Engineering

HMC Based Inverse Analysis to Determine Position and Size of Square Cavities
Michael Conrad Koch, Fujisawa Kazunori and Akira Murakami

637 – 642

Numerical Analysis of the Shiaolin Landslide Using Material Point Method
Wei – Lin Lee, Mario Martinelli and Chjeng – Lun Shieh

643 – 648

Inverse Analysis of Consolidation Behavior with Several Nonlinear Models
Shin – ichi Nishimura

649 – 654

Method on Identification of Infiltration Characteristics of Unsaturated Decomposed Granite Soils
Kazuhiro Oda, Shin – ichi Ito and Keigo Koizumi

655 – 660

Accurate Prediction of Horizontal Displacement Based on EC/LC Model Using Model Test Results
Toshifumi Shibata, Shin – ichi Nishimura and Takayuki Shuku

661 – 666

Optimal Sampling Planning for Soil Arsenic Contamination Based on Value of Information
Yosuke Tasaki, Ikumasa Yoshida and Shunjiro Konishi

667 – 672

Basic Study on Conditional Random Field with Sparse Modelling
Ikumasa Yoshida, Yosuke Tasaki and Shinichi Nishimura

673 – 678

Validation of Numerical Analysis Based on Mode Decomposition
Yu Otake, Yosuke Higo, Kyohei Shigeno and Shinya Watanabe

679 – 684

Landslides: Landslide Risk Assessment and Management & Risk Assessment of Rainfall-Induced Geo-Hazards

Assessment of Consequences of Debris Flows over Hong Kong Island under Extreme Rainfall
T. Abimbola Owolabi and Limin Zhang

685 – 689

Simulation of the Sediment Propagation During the Breaching of the Tangjiashan Landslide Dam
Ming Peng, Chenyi Ma, Xingsheng Zhang, Zhenming Shi and Yan Zhu

690 – 695

Development of Random Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method for Landslide Risk Assessment
Zhengwen Qin, Yu Wang, Xin Liu and Liang Li

696 – 702

Breaching Degree of Landslide Dams
Danyi Shen, Zhenming Shi and Ming Peng

703 – 708

Predicting Slope Stability with Incomplete Data Using Naive Bayes Classifier
Xianda Feng, Shuchen Li, Chao Yuan and Peng Zeng

709 – 714

Efficient Sample Manipulation for Direct Monte Carlo Simulation in Slope System Reliability Analysis
Xin Liu, Zi-Jun Cao, Dian-Qing Li and Yu Wang

715 – 720

Indirect Losses of Transportation Interruption Induced by a Landslide: A Case Study
Meng Lu and Jie Zhang

721 – 726

A Probabilistic Approach for Identifying Correlations between Landslides and Rainfall at Regional Scale
Michele Calvello and Gaetano Pecoraro

727 – 732

IoT – Based Strategies for Risk Management of Rainfall – Induced Landslides: A Review
Emir Ahmet Oguz, Kate Robinson, Ivan Depina and Vikas Thakur

733 – 738

Experimental Study on Rainfall – Induced Landslides with Different Types of Deposits
Siyi Zhao, Yanni Bao, Zhenming Shi and Ming Peng

739 – 744

Probabilistic Runout Analysis of Landslide Considering Spatial Variability
X.Y. Chen, L.L. Zhang and H.Q. Yang

745 – 750

Analytical Solution for Consolidation of Tailings with Horizontal Drainage Pipes
Hong – Xin Chen, Shu – Rui Wang, Shi – Jin Feng and Zhang – Long Chen

751 – 756

Dams, Levees and Flood Risk

Comparative Study for Reliability of a Spatially Variable Undrained Long Slope
Szu – Wei Lee and Jianye Ching

757 – 762

A Comprehensive Numerical Approach for Stability Analyses of German Sea – Dikes
Thomas Nuber, Javier Moreno and Martin Pohl

763 – 768

Progression Rate of Backward Erosion Piping in Laboratory Experiments and Reliability Analysis
J.C. Pol, V.M. van Beek, W. Kanning and S.N. Jonkman

769 – 774

Influence of Residual Dyke Strength on Dyke Reliability Using the Random Material Point Method
Guido Remmerswaal, Michael A. Hicks and Philip J. Vardon

775 – 780

Burrowing Activity of Muskrats, Nutrias and Beavers on River Levees–Damages, Consequences and Mitigation Measures
Torsten Heyer

781 – 786

Bayesian Inference of Piping Model Uncertainties Based on Field Observations
Willem Kanning and Timo Schweckendiek

787 – 791

Influence of Monitoring on Investment Planning of Flood Defence Systems
Wouter Jan Klerk, Wim Kanning, Nelle – Jan van Veen and Matthijs Kok

792 – 797

Armor Stone Displacements at German Inland Waterways: An Approach to Schedule Inspections Coupling Reliability Analysis with Markov Chains
Julia Sorgatz, Jan Kayser and Holger Schüttrumpf

798 – 803

Upgrading Existing Levees' Seismic Resiliency with Pressed – in Double Sheet Pile Walls
Takefumi Takuma

804 – 809

Integral Failure Analysis of Pipelines in Flood Defenses
Anton van der Meer, Timo Schweckendiek, Henk Kruse and Harry Schelfhout

810 – 815

Seismic Hazard and Seismic Performance: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment and Engineering Seismology & Effect of Spatial Variability on Seismic Performance of Soil and Rock and Associated Reliability

National Seismic Hazard Maps for Japan and Its Application to Seismic Risk Assessment
Hiroyuki Fujiwara, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Hiromitsu Nakamura and Ken Xiansheng Hao

816 – 821

Estimation of the Frequency – Magnitude Gutenberg – Richter b – value without Knowledge of the Time – Varying Level of Completeness
Andrzej Kijko and Ansie Smit

822 – 827

Evaluation of Ground Response Uncertainty by Site Response Analysis at the Turkey Flat Geotechnical Array
Chi – Chin Tsai and Wei – Sen Chang

828 – 833

A Study on the Relationship between Arias Intensity and Earthquake – Induced Slope Displacement
Chih – Hsuan Liu, Hsuan – Ho Wang and Ching Hung

834 – 839

Earthquake – Induced Household Collapse Rate in Taiwan
I – Chia Chen and J.P. Wang

840 – 845

CAV Seismic Hazard Analysis of Taiwan
Pei – En Chiang and J.P. Wang

846 – 851

Post – Liquefaction Settlements: Spatial Variability and Correlation to Spatially Variable Soil Characteristics
Taeho Bong, Armin Stuedlein, Jianye Ching, Kok-Kwang Phoon and Jack Montgomery

852 – 857

Probabilistic Seismic Deformation Analysis of Anchored Sheetpile Walls
Wenping Gong, Lei Wang and C. Hsein Juang

858 – 863

Assessment of the Variability in Liquefaction – Induced Lateral Spreading: Insights from Lateral Spreading Observed in Recent Seismic Events
Nancy Ingabire Abayo, Ashly Cabas, Ellen Chamberlin and Brina Montoya

864 – 869

Liquefaction – Induced Settlement Estimates for a Spatially Variable Deposit Using Numerical and Empirical Approaches
Devdeep Basu, Jack Montgomery and Armin W. Stuedlein

870 – 875

Engineering Risk Sensing by Monitoring and Inspection

Dynamic Soil Parameters Updating and Response Prediction with Multi – Sensor Monitoring Information by WSN
Jingjian Hu, Dongming Zhang and Hongwei Huang

876 – 881

Application of Wireless Sensing in Shanghai Utility Tunnel
Yunqing Wu, Jian Huang, Dongming Zhang, Hengdong Wang and Hongwei Huang

882 – 887

On – Site Visualization as a New Strategy for Geotechnical Safety and Risk Management
Shinichi Akutagawa

888 – 893

Performance Evaluation Method for Slope Monitoring System Based on On – Site Visualization
Mitsugu Nomura, Satoshi Tomoto and Haihua Zhang

894 – 899

On – Site Visualization for Risk Management of Mountain Tunnel Construction
Minoru Hayashi and Yasunori Eguchi