Proceedings of the
9th International Conference of Asian Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (ASPEN2022)
15 – 18 November 2022, Singapore

Topology Optimization of Free Form Stiffener Built by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

Zhi-Qian Zhang1,a, Xuan Anh Nguyen2,b, Junyan Guo1, Peter King2, Sam Yang2, N. Sridhar1 and Alejandro Vargas-Uscategui2

1Department of Engineering Mechanics, Institute of High-Performance Computing, A*STAR Research Entities, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632

2CSIRO Manufacturing, Gate 5, Normanby Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia


Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing (CSAM) is a solid-state AM process using kinetic energy to deposit powder particles onto the target surface. Metal deposits built by CSAM possess superior features, including no phase transition, low porosity, low residual stress, good wear resistance, high and tunable dislocation densities, and nano-sized grain structure. One of the CSAM's merits is that a large-scale part can be built on the existing structures with ease and at a high build rate, making it an attractive application for building stiffener structures on thin-walled aerospace panels. A topology optimization framework is proposed to design the free form and fabricable stiffener structures, considering CSAM manufacturing constraints, such as tool path planning, tool accessibility, stiffener cross-section geometry, and residual stress. The design and fabrication workflow is established, and the framework is validated with experiments on the topologically optimized stiffeners and the benchmark designs of grid stiffener structures.

Keywords: Topology Optimization, Stiffener, Free form, Cold Spray, Additive Manufacturing.

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