Asian Journal of Environment and Disaster Management (AJEDM)Volume 6 Number 3 (2014)
Difference in Caste, Head of Households, and Income on Livelihood Resilience
Bihar, located in the northeastern part of India is prone to recurring flood which ransacked livelihood. However, the capacity to recover after flood is not alike for the households in the similar spatial area. The preceding inequality within the community like caste discrimination, discrepancy in male and female-headed households (de facto (widows, unmarried, separated or divorced) and de jure (remittance from migrated husband) and income disparity creates difference in livelihood resilience. In this background, the objectives of the study are to identify the impact of inequality on the basis of caste, and differences in head of households and income on livelihood resilience; and, to unravel the impact of difference in HOH on livelihood resilience vary due to difference in income. The data were collected from 472 households in Purnea and Katihar districts of Bihar. A three-way between-groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze and interpret data. The results show that households irrespective of the inequality on the basis of caste collectively struggle to combat flood. Themale-headed households are comparatively more adaptive for livelihood resilience measure, whereas the de facto and higher income households are robust to recover than lower income and de jure households who somehow maintain their living. The government may pay attention to income opening source by keeping lower income and de jure households in consideration.
Keywords: Livelihood, Resilience, Inequality, Household.