Asian Journal of Environment and Disaster Management (AJEDM)Volume 2 Number 3 (2010)
Review of Disaster Rehabilitation Methodologies Following the Indian Ocean Tsunami from a Human Security Perspective
From a human security perspective, it is crucial to ensure that people affected by disasters can resume normal daily life. This study aims to propose the methodologies of collaboration between communities, development agencies, and NGOs for rehabilitation projects focusing on individuals. JICA conducted various community-based rehabilitation projects following the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004. The study observes that the JICA's ``four principle'' approach of integrating self-aid, community-aid, government-aid, and foreign-aid is useful for community-based rehabilitation. This concept evolved from an important lesson learned from the Kobe earthquake in 1995. The study further examines implementation difficulties of all community-based JICA projects among three collaborative methodologies with communities and NGOs: (1) subsidies to NGOs in Indonesia, (2) subcontracts with NGOs in Sri Lanka, and (3) direct implementation by JICA in Maldives. It was found that the involvement of foreign experts in the implementation of the subcontract or direct implementation methodologies is crucial to attaining project quality. The subsidy methodology was the least effective, since project quality depends on NGOs' capacities that are difficult to evaluate during the confusion following enormous disasters.
Keywords: Community-based rehabilitation, Indian Ocean Tsunami, Human security.