Proceedings of the

The 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023)
3 – 8 September 2023, Southampton, UK

Review of Human Error Assessment Methods Suitable for the Design of Maritime Remote Control Rooms and Processes

Danilo Taverna Martins Pereira de Abreu1,a, Marcelo Ramos Martins1,b, Marcos Coelho Maturana1,c, Jakub Montewka2 and Marilia Abilio Ramos3

1Department of Naval and Ocean Engineering, Analysis, Evaluation and Risk Management Laboratory (LabRisco), University of São Paulo, Brazil.

2Ship Design Department, Institute of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.

3The B. John Garrick Institute for the Risk Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA.


Shipping is facing numerous innovations nowadays that, if pursued, could significantly change how ships are designed, operated and navigated. One of these innovations is the remote control of ships. In this new context, decisions are made outside the controlled vessel, from a remote control centre, and with limited awareness of the vessel and surrounding conditions. To ensure operator performance in remote control centres, they must be designed with a human-centred approach. To this end, in addition to adopting human factors principles, appropriate human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques must be used to reduce human error probability. Currently, several HRA methods exist, both in the scientific literature and in industry standards. However, most methods were developed or tested in domains other than remote maritime. In the lack of an HRA method specific to remote maritime operations, modified versions of nuclear and aviation-based methods and tools are applied. Therefore, aiming at overcoming these limitations, the objectives of this paper are threefold: 1) to review existing methods suitable for designing remote control centres and processes; 2) to shortlist methods found applicable in the maritime context; 3) to elaborate on overall method requirements and research directions.

Keywords: Autonomous shipping, Human reliability analysis, Maritime transportation, Risk assessment.

Download PDF