Proceedings of the

The 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023)
3 – 8 September 2023, Southampton, UK

Managing the Hazards of Ammonia in Seaports as a Potential Alternative Fuel for Green Shipping

Georgi Hrenov1,a, Karin Reinhold1, Marina Järvis1,2, Piia Tint1 and Gunnar Prause1,3

1School of Business and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.

2Estonian Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences, Estonia /EADDRESS/
3Wismar Business School, Wismar University, Wismar, Germany /EADDRESS/


The article discusses the importance of safety management systems for seaports, especially in the context of the use of ammonia as a potential alternative fuel for the shipping industry. The article highlights the need for constant monitoring to detect non-conformities and reduce accidents, emphasizing the hazards of simultaneous operations (SIMOPs) and the lack of knowledge on the safety, security, and environmental risks associated with ammonia storage and loading in port operations. The paper focuses on the safety management system of the Port of Sillamäe in Estonia, which has the largest ammonia storage in Europe and three berths for ammonia loading to ships. The study suggests that only refrigerated ammonia should be used for bunkering ships to minimize accident risks. No major accidents or severe injuries have been reported among personnel handling ammonia since the beginning of operations at the port. The article also discusses the production of green ammonia from renewable energy sources to decarbonize ammonia production, while noting the need for high safety standards in its use as a hazardous chemical.

Keywords: Safety management system, Health and safety, Major hazards, Ammonia, Decarbonization, Maritime safety.

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