Proceedings of the

The 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023)
3 – 8 September 2023, Southampton, UK

The Joint Application of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) with the Perceptual Cycle Model (PCM) Supporting the Safety Analysis of an Accident

Igor Neves Marques da Silvaa, Guilherme Manfrim Sivierob, Fernando Antonio Pereirac and Moacyr Machado Cardoso Juniord

Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA), Brazil.


The increasing automation and complexity in aircraft systems may present considerable challenge to flight crews all over the world and concerns related to human machine interface appears, mainly in a stressful situation and potentially lead to an accident. This study proposes use the FRAM tool to reconstruct an event scenario to bring clear comprehension in the everyday performance adjustments and to allow characterize the main points where the variability of human performance, in a given specific situation, could lead to an observed negative result. In addition, this paper also proposes the application of the Perceptual Cycle Model (PCM) in the analysis of naturalistic decisionmaking coupled to the FRAM model. In July 2007, the Airbus 320 of TAM Airlines flight JJ3054 destined to São Paulo lost control on the ground and overran the runway. The PCM usage highlighted the flight crew behaviour and course of actions operating the thrust levers given the information received and the pilots schema at that moment. With the understanding obtained from the PCM application, it is possible to feed back the FRAM model improving the comprehension of the accident scenario and key points affecting the human performance variability, enabling manage it. The joint application of FRAM and PCM proved to be a great contribution to accident prevention and the engineering of more resilient complex dynamic sociotechnical systems.

Keywords: Accident investigation, Safety analysis, Functional resonance analysis method, Perceptual cycle model, Naturalistic decision making, Human performance.

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