Proceedings of the

The 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023)
3 – 8 September 2023, Southampton, UK

How to Measure Organizational Resilience through Leading and Lagging Indicators of the Safety Management System Performance

Fabio Pera1,a, Marianna Madonna2, Paolo Fioretti3 and Ernesto Del Prete1,b

1Department of Technological Innovations and Safety of Plants, Products and Anthropic Settlements, INAIL, Italy.

2Operational Territorial Unit of Naples - Certification, Verification and Research Area, INAIL, Italy.

3Central Advisory Department for Health and Safety, INAIL, Italy.


Based on the study of the scientific literature on the performance indicators of safety management systems, it emerged that to date there is no standardization of indicators capable of providing a systemic assessment. However, in the literature, several indicators have been proposed to evaluate the performance of the safety management system: lagging, monitoring and leading indicators.

The lagging indicators are result indicators in terms of the consequences deriving from situational and contextual factors. The monitoring and leading indicators, on the other hand, have the function to direct (guide) the activity of an organization towards proactive safety. The monitoring indicators provide a view of the dynamics of the organization in terms of practices, skills and motivation of staff, or the organizational potential for safety.

In a previous scientific paper, the authors have proposed a correlation table between the elements of a safety management system according to UNI EN ISO 45001 and the elements that characterize a resilient organization according to ISO 22316. In this paper, the authors want to identify, for each correlation element, the leading and lagging indicators that are used to monitor same aspects of the safety management system, since, providing useful information to "anticipate" the behaviour of the system. Therefore, based on correlation table, they should be able to provide indications on the resilience of the organization.

Keywords: Safety management system, Organizational resilience, Performance indicators, Leading indicators, Lagging indicators.

Download PDF