Proceedings of the

The 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023)
3 – 8 September 2023, Southampton, UK

Challenges in the Real-World Evaluation of Traction Batteries at the End of their First Life

Alexander Popp1,a, Heiko Fechtner1,b, Benedikt Schmuelling1,c, Tobias Scholz2,d, Simeon Kremzow-Tennie2,e and Friedbert Pautzke2,f

1Chair of Electric Mobility and Energy Storage Systems, University of Wuppertal, Germany.

2Electric Vehicle Institute, Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Germany.


Lithium-ion batteries are the most used cell technology in electric vehicles in recent years and today. Forecasts show a global supply of more than 200 GWh/y in 2030 of batteries available for reuse in second life applications. Determination of the overall status and explicitly the state of health is a difficult task, especially for municipal recycling facilities confronted with scarce information about the history and construction of the traction batteries. The frequently used technical approaches require a dismantling of the battery pack down to the cell level for an accurate condition assessment. However, for security reasons, a quick and accurate assessment is required at the pack or module level. This paper provides an overview of possible approaches to the assessment of used battery packs from receipt at the recycling facility to various measurements of the state of health determination with regard to the time required.

Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries, Energy storage, Circular economy, Electric vehicle, State of health, Battery testing.

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